History of Vienna

  • 1192 Richard the Lionheart is taken captive in #, the ransom helps build fortifications;
  • 1198 the Golden Age of Vienna begins with economic, architectural, and artistic growth;
  • 1237 Vienna is incorporated as a free city of the Empire by Emperor Friedrich II;
  • 1298 the first “Christkindlmarkt”. Christmas market is held in Vienna;
  • 1304 construction begins on the Albertine Choir in St. Stephans church;
  • 1438 Duke Albrecht V. is voted German King and Vienna is declared the capital of the empire;
  • 1469 Vienna becomes a Bishopric and St. Stephans is elevated to the status of Cathedral;
  • 1529 first invasion of the Turks, Vienna’s defense is successfully organized by Duke Salm;
  • 1679 the great plague, royalty, and nobility flee to Prague, 60,000 are lost to the Black Death;
  • 1685 the first Viennese Coffee House is opened by Johannes Diodato;
  • 1703 the oldest newspaper in the world is published. renamed “Wiener Zeitung” in 1780;
  • 1740 24-year-old Maria Theresia, fondly known as “Sissi”, begins her reign until 1780;
  • 1804 the Albertine water duct is built, Vienna’s first freshwater supply “pipe”;
  • 1865 the Ringstrasse is opened and the first horse trams take up their duty;
  • 1938 Hitler marches on Vienna, 200,000 Viennese lose their lives in WWII;
  • 1955 the State Treaty is signed in the upper Belvedere Palace, freedom from the allied rule;
  • 1987 the Austria Center Vienna is opened to the public;

Most visited attractions ( 2003 )

Schonbrunn Palace1,430,022
Art History Museum1,313,719

Vienna – Festivals, and Festivities

Neujahrskonzertearly JanMusikvereinVienna Philharmonic New Years concert
Wiener Opern Ballmid-FebStaatsopercarnival capers, high-society style
KalvarienbergmarktMar-AprKavalienbergfairground festivities for young and old
Osterklang festivalearly Aprvarious venuesa highlight of classical and choir music
Wiener Festwochenmid-Mayvarious venuesfrom theater to opera, orchestra to solo
Vienna City MarathonMaythroughout the citythe highlight on the city’s sporting calender
Donauinselfestlate JunDonauinselfestival highlights in the Danube Island
Lange Nacht der Musikmid-Junvarious venuesfrom classical to jazz and pop to rock
Musikfilmfestival WienJul-SepRathhausplatzoperatic performances on celluloid weekends
Jazzfest Wienearly Julvarious venuesthe best of what the jazz world has to offer
Pratervolksfestearly SepVolksprateropen-air fun and frolics around the Prater
Rund um die, Burg,mid-Sepvarious tents24 hrs of literary readings in numerous tents
  “wean hean”late Sepvarious venuesfolk songs of individual Viennese character
mid-Octvarious venuesVienna’s film festival for film enthusiasts
Kultur & Weihnachtsm.DecSchonbrunnChristmas and Culture Market
Wiener ChristkindlmarktDecRathhausplatzVienna’s most famous Christmas Market

Viennese Coffeehouse culture, specialties, and a sprinkle of history

The history of Vienna’s famous coffeehouse culture is enriched by legend and intrigue, but the truth about coffee-brewing icon Franz Kolschizky is soberer.
He was handed the honorable duty of messenger to seek help during the invasion of the Turks in 1683, upon succeeding he was granted a humble wish – the coffee reserves of the flown Turks and a house in the city. In truth, many more personalities were responsible for the popularity of the bitter black brew, the serving of which started as a 20-year monopoly.

The mid-1700s saw the establishment of the basic amenities of a good coffeehouse: a rack with newspapers, a billiard table, a deck of cards, and of course the glass of water with your coffee.
By 1839 there were 83 coffeehouses in the city, and to this day there remains an untiring enthusiasm for this unique cultural habit centering around a superb cup of coffee and a delectable, if not unforgettable, piece of Viennese cake.

Schwarzer or Mokka – coffee as black as night, no milk;
Brauner or Gold – Mokka with a light milk cloud, add cognac and it’s called a Pharisee;
Einspanner – black coffee served in a glass with a topping of whipped cream;
Fiaker – a glass of Mokka, sweetened and flavored with rum;
Wiener Melange – equal proportions of coffee and milk, sweetened with sugar or honey;
Kaisermelange – egg yolk whipped together with sugar and cognac, mixed with Mokka and milk;
Kapuziner – a small Mokka, a few drops of whipped cream and sprinkled with cinnamon or cocoa;
Mazagran – a cooled Mokka served with an ice cube;

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