On this hill, there were built the most important temples of the city, such as that one of the triad Jupiter, Juno, and Minerva.
In the Middle Ages, it becomes the seat of the commune. From the beginning of 1536. by order of Paul III, Michelangelo planned this trapezoidal square and connected it with the city through a scenographical staircase. In the middle, the equestrian statue of Marcus Aurelius, found near San Giovanni, was placed as an homage to classic times.
The original, recently restored, is now exhibited in the court of the Museum, while only a copy has been placed in the square. Remains of the statue of Constantine, once in the Maxentius Basilica, are now on the Capitol. Michelangelo planned the facade of the medioeval Palazzo Senatorio, Palazzo dei Conservatori and Palazzo nuovo. But when he died in 1564 only one side of the first buildings had been completed. The other buildings will be completed in 50 years by his followers.